Financial Modeling with Excel

(Excel Best Practices for Financial Modeling)


The revolution of technology has hijacked almost all the sectors and it has become an automated system to work in most of the fields. In the finance sector, most of the individuals gain more and more experience by working with the clients on their worksheets. Financial experts keep themselves updated according to the current trends.

Financial Modeling has become an advanced branch of Financial World and Excel is adding icing to the cake prepared by the Financial Experts. Financial Modeling for beginners has transformed into an innovative piece of information and that’s why most Finance aspirants are looking for Simple Financial Model Excel according to the demand of the industry.

What is a Financial Model?

A Financial Model consists of one or more input parameters along with data and formulas that are used to perform calculations or make predictions.

Financial models are used to estimate the valuation of a business or to compare businesses to their peers in the industry. They also are used in strategic planning to test various scenarios, calculate the cost of new projects, decide on budgets, and allocate corporate resources.

A financial model allows you to input a set of assumptions about a company’s future and will project the company’s future financial performance from them.

This is usually in the form of an income statement, balance sheet, and cash flow statement. It often includes calculation sheets and sheets of further analysis.


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The task of creating a notional representation (the financial model) of a real-world financial situation is Financial Modeling

Financial Modeling is the process conducted to create a financial representation of the entity. It is the process of creating a summary of a company’s expenses and earnings in the form of a spreadsheet that can be used to calculate the impact of a future event or decision.

It is through this financial model that the financial analyst tries to forecast future earnings and performance of the company. The analysts use numerous forecast theories and valuations to recreate business operations. The financial model once completed, displays a mathematical depiction of the business events. The primary tool utilized to create the financial model is the excel spreadsheet.

You may have thought that a financial model was just an Excel spreadsheet, but as you know, not every spreadsheet is a financial model. People can and do use Excel for all kinds of purposes.

Excel Financial Modeling


Microsoft Excel is an extremely powerful tool. Many people do not realize that spreadsheets can be used for more than just creating tables and charts and summarizing data. Although spreadsheets were originally designed to function as electronic ledgers and accounting worksheets, they are now commonly used for creating complex mathematical models. Instead of just storing, summarizing, and formatting data, a financial model is used for analysis.

Always remember, if you are from the Finance sector, with hundreds of tools, features, and functions in Microsoft Excel. Excel works as a blessing for you. This is the best analytical tool that would always be in use. A financial model excel can simplistically define the most complex algorithms for computing and predicting financial approaches.

Who is a Financial Modeler?

Different types of people create, build, and use financial models for different purposes. Financial models are usually built to solve real-world problems, and there are different financial models for solving different real-world financial problems. Primarily, anyone who uses Excel for finance will at some point in his career build a financial model for himself or others to use; at the very least, he’ll use a model someone else created.

Due to the very nature of the financial institutions, Bankers, especially investment bankers, are heavy users of financial models. Modeling is part of the art of the company. Other users are the equity researcher, credit researcher, etc. Financial institutions’ core is mainly built on financial models.

Financial Modeling itself is a skill that helps in building a career in Finance. Essential skills for good financial modeler are:

  • Excellent Excel Expertise
  • Accounting, Finance, and Valuation Acquaintance
  • Decision-making Ability
  • Problem Solving Ability

Excel Best Practices for Financial Modeling

Below are a series of best practices on how to build with a financial modeler mindset.

One Row, One Formular

Most investment banking models, like the 3-statement model, rely on historical data to drive forecasts. Data should be presented from left to right. The right of the historical columns is the forecast columns. The formulas in the forecast columns should be consistent across the row.


Don’t hide Rows, Group them

A model often has rows with data and calculations that you do not want to show when the model is printed or when you paste the data into a presentation. Within this longer spreadsheet, “group” rows rather than “hide” them.


Avoid Linking Files

Avoid linking to other files whenever possible. Cross-linking has been known to crash larger Excel models or update inconsistently, thereby creating hard-to-track errors. If linking to other files is a must, It is better to input the relevant data you require from a different file as hard-coded inputs, which you then manually update as required.

Simplicity And Transparency

Keep the model simple. Regardless of the quality of the calculations, if it looks complex or the model flow isn’t intuitive then expect immediate negative feedback. Transparency drives structure, complicated formulas should be avoided at all cost. A complicated formula can often be broken down into multiple cells and simplified.

Make Extensive use of Error Checks

Checks are the easiest way to quickly review the integrity of a model. Error Checks encompass everything from ensuring that totals are accurate, to ensuring that one’s model is indeed balanced. Putting checks in place helps to catch errors in the model.


It is quite easy to make a simple mistake that prevents the model from balancing. “Check” simply identifies to the user that a mistake has been made and further investigation is required.

Basic Financial Models

  • 3-Statement Model
  • Budget Model
  • Forecasting Model
  • Discounted Cash Flow Model

Advanced Financial Models

  • Initial Public Offering Model
  • Merger Model
  • Leveraged Buyout Model
  • Consolidation Model
  • Option Pricing Model


Financial Modeling forms a core of various other Finance areas. It is one of the most sought after skills in the finance industry. Excel Financial Modelling is a highly valued tool that benefits entities in numerous ways and also helps many analysts to perform better day by day.

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Business Intelligence| Financial Data Science| Analytics| Finance Undergrad